Edge-labeled graphs have proliferated rapidly over the last decade due to the increased popularity of social networks and the Semantic Web. In social networks, relationships betweenpeople are represented by edges and each edge is labeled with a semantic annotation. Hence, a huge single graph can express many different relationships between entities.
The Semantic Web represents each single fragment of knowledge as a triple (subject, predicate, object), which is conceptually identical to an edge from subject to object labeled with predicates. A set of triples constitutes an edge-labeled graph on which knowledge inference is performed.
Subgraph matching has been extensively used as a query language for patterns in the context of edge-labeled graphs. For example, in social networks, users can specify a subgraph matching query to find all people that have certain neighborhood relationships. Heavily used fragments of the SPARQL query language for the Semantic Web and graph queries of other graph DBMS can also be viewed as subgraph matching over large graphs.
Though subgraph matching has been extensively studied as a query paradigm in the Semantic Web and in social networks, a user can get a large number of answers in response to a query. These answers can be shown to the user in accordance with an importance ranking. In this thesis proposal, we present four different scoring models along with scalable algorithms to find the top-k answers via a suite of intelligent pruning techniques. The suggested models consist of a practically important subset of the SPARQL query language augmented with some additional useful features.
The first model called Substitution Importance Query (SIQ) identifies the top-k answers whose scores are calculated from matched vertices’ properties in each answer in accordance with a user-specified notion of importance. The second model called Vertex Importance Query (VIQ) identifies important vertices in accordance with a user-defined scoring method that builds on top of various subgraphs articulated by the user.
Approximate Importance Query (AIQ), our third model, allows partial and inexact matchings and returns top-k of them with a user-specified approximation terms and scoring functions. In the fourth model called Probabilistic Importance Query (PIQ), a query consists of several sub-blocks: one mandatory block that must be mapped and other blocks that can be opportunistically mapped. The probability is calculated from various aspects of answers such as the number of mapped blocks, vertices’ properties in each block and so on and the most top-k probable answers are returned.
An important distinguishing feature of our work is that we allow the user a huge amount of freedom in specifying: (i) what pattern and approximation he considers important, (ii) how to score answers – irrespective of whether they are vertices or substitution, and (iii) how to combine and aggregate scores generated by multiple patterns and/or multiple substitutions. Because so much power is given to the user, indexing is more challenging than in situations where additional restrictions are imposed on the queries the user can ask.
The proposed algorithms for the first model can also be used for answering SPARQL queries with ORDER BY and LIMIT, and the method for the second model also works for SPARQL queries with GROUP BY, ORDER BY and LIMIT. We test our algorithms on multiple real-world graph databases, showing that our algorithms are far more efficient than popular triple stores.
Source: University of Maryland
Author: Park, Noseong